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Events

* 1215 - The Fourth Lateran Council meets, adopting the doctrine of transubstantiation, meaning that bread and wine are transformed into the body and blood of Christ.
* 1500 - Treaty of Granada - Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon agree to divide the Kingdom of Naples between them.
* 1620 - In what is now Provincetown Harbor near Cape Cod, the Mayflower Compact is signed on the Mayflower, establishing the basic laws for the Plymouth Colony.
* 1634 - Following pressure from Anglican bishop John Atherton, the Irish House of Commons passes "An Act for the Punishment for the Vice of Buggery" (anal sex).
* 1675 - Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated integral calculus for the first time to find the area under the graph of y = f(x) function.
* 1675 - Guru Gobind Singh becomes the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs.
* 1831 - In Jerusalem, Virginia, Nat Turner is hanged after inciting a violent slave uprising.
* 1833 - Former United States President John Quincy Adams is first chief executive involved in a railroad accident when the Camden & Amboy train he is riding derails due to a broken axle caused by an overheated journal box in the meadows near Hightstown, New Jersey. He is uninjured and continues his trip onto Washington, D.C. the following day.
* 1834 - Hans Christian Andersen's The Ugly Duckling was first published.
* 1839 - The Virginia Military Institute is founded in Lexington, Virginia.
* 1864 - American Civil War: Sherman's March to the Sea - Union General William Tecumseh Sherman begins burning Atlanta, Georgia to the ground in preparation for his march south.
* 1865 - Treaty of Sinchula is signed in which Bhutan ceded the areas east of the Teesta River to the British East India Company.
* 1880 - Australian Bushranger Ned Kelly is hanged at Melbourne Gaol.
* 1887 - Anarchist Haymarket Martyrs August Spies, Albert Parsons, Adolph Fischer and George Engel are executed.
* 1887 - Construction of the Manchester Ship Canal starts at Eastham.
* 1889 - Washington is admitted as the 42nd U.S. state.
* 1911 - Many cities in the midwest broke their record highs and lows on the same day as a strong cold front rolls through. (see The 11/11/11 cold wave).
* 1918 - World War I ends: Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies in a railroad car outside of Compiègne in France. The war officially stops at 11:00.
* 1918 - Józef Pilsudski comes to Warsaw and assumes supreme military power in Poland. Poland regains its independence.
* 1918 - Emperor Charles I of Austria abdicates.
* 1919 - The Centralia Massacre in Centralia, Washington results the deaths of four members of the American Legion and the lynching of a local leader of the IWW.
* 1921 - The Tomb of the Unknowns is dedicated by US President Warren G. Harding at Arlington National Cemetery.
* 1930 - Patent number US1781541 was awarded to Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd for their invention, the Einstein refrigerator.
* 1933 - Dust Bowl: In South Dakota, a very strong dust storm strips topsoil from desiccated farmlands.
* 1940 - World War II: Battle of Taranto - The Royal Navy launches the first aircraft carrier strike in history, on the Italian fleet at Taranto.
* 1940 - The German cruiser Atlantis captures top secret British mail, and sends it to Japan.
* 1940 - Armistice Day Blizzard: An unexpected blizzard kills 144 in U.S. Midwest.
* 1962 - Kuwait's National Assembly ratifies the Constitution of Kuwait.
* 1963 - Brian Epstein signs contract for the Beatles to make three appearances on the Ed Sullivan show.
* 1965 - Rhodesia (now called Zimbabwe) was declared independent by the white minority regime of Ian Smith.
* 1966 - NASA launches spaceship Gemini 12.
* 1967 - Vietnam War: In a propaganda ceremony in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, three American prisoners of war are released by the Viet Cong and turned over to "new left" antiwar activist Tom Hayden.
* 1968 - Vietnam War: Operation Commando Hunt initiated. The goal was to interdict men and supplies on the Ho Chi Minh Trail, through Laos into South Vietnam.
* 1968 - A second republic is declared in the Maldives.
* 1970 - First broadcast of Sesame Street.
* 1972 - Vietnam War: Vietnamization - The United States Army turns over the massive Long Binh military base to South Vietnam.
* 1975 - Angola becomes independent from Portugal.
* 1975 - Australian constitutional crisis of 1975: Australian Governor-General Sir John Kerr dismisses the government of Gough Whitlam and commissions Malcolm Fraser as caretaker Prime Minister, and announces a general election to be held in early December.
* 1978 - Maumoon Abdul Gayoom succeeded Ibrahim Nasir as the president of the Republic of Maldives. He has since been re-elected for six consecutive 5-year terms.
* 1992 - The Church of England votes to allow women to become priests.
* 1997 - Mary McAleese inaugurated as the eighth President of Ireland.
* 1999 - A six-storey apartment block collapses in Foggia, Italy, killing 62.
* 2000 - In Kaprun, Austria, 155 skiers and snowboarders die when a cable car catches fire in an alpine tunnel.
* 2004 - Under new ownership, G4TechTV terminated many great TechTV hosts, and aired their last episodes on the 10th and 11th.
* 2004 - New Zealand Tomb of the Unknown Warrior dedicated at the National War Memorial, Wellington
* 2004 - Yasser Arafat is confirmed dead by the Palestine Liberation Organization, of unidentified causes. Mahmoud Abbas is elected chairman of the PLO minutes later.
* 2004 - Mary McAleese inaugurated for a second term as President of Ireland.
* 2005 - David Irving, a British historian, is arrested in Austria on a 1989 warrant for offenses related to Holocaust denial.


Births

* 1050 - Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor (d. 1106)
* 1154 - King Sancho I of Portugal (d. 1212)
* 1155 - King Alfonso VIII of Castile (d. 1214)
* 1220 - Alphonse of Toulouse, son of Louis VIII of France (d. 1271)
* 1493 - Paracelsus, doctor (d. 1541)
* 1493 - Bernardo Tasso, Italian poet (d. 1569)
* 1599 - Prince Octavio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi, Austrian field marshal (d. 1656)
* 1633 - George Savile, 1st Marquess of Halifax, British statesman (d. 1695)
* 1668 - Johann Albert Fabricius, German classical scholar and bibliographer (d. 1736)
* 1743 - Carl Peter Thunberg, Swedish naturalist (d. 1828)
* 1744 - Abigail Adams, First Lady of the United States (d. 1818)
* 1748 - King Charles IV of Spain (d. 1819)
* 1764 - Barbara Juliana, Baroness von Krüdener, Russian writer (d. 1824)
* 1791 - Josef Munzinger, Swiss Federal Councillor (d. 1855)
* 1792 - Mary Anne Evans, English wife of Benjamin Disraeli (d. 1872)
* 1821 - Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Russian novelist (d. 1881)
* 1828 - Sri Deep Narayan Mahaprabhuji, Hindu saint (d. 1963)
* 1836 - Thomas Bailey Aldrich, American poet and novelist (d. 1907)
* 1852 - Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf, Austro-Hungarian field marshal (d. 1925)
* 1858 - Marie Bashkirtseff, Russian painter (d. 1884)
* 1863 - Paul Signac, French painter (d. 1935)
* 1864 - Alfred Hermann Fried, Austrian pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1921)
* 1869 - King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy (d. 1947)
* 1882 - King Gustav VI Adolf of Sweden (d. 1973)
* 1883 - Ernest Ansermet, Swiss conductor (d. 1969)
* 1885 - George Smith Patton, Jr., American general (d. 1945)
* 1887 - Roland Young, American actor (d. 1953)
* 1889 - Clifton Webb, American actor (d. 1966)
* 1891 - Rabbit Maranville, baseball player (d. 1954)
* 1897 - Lucky Luciano, American gangster (d. 1962)
* 1898 - Rene Clair, French film director (d. 1981)
* 1899 - Pat O'Brien, American film actor (d. 1983)
* 1900 - Halina Konopacka, Polish athlete (d. 1989)
* 1901 - F. Van Wyck Mason, American author (d. 1978)
* 1903 - Sam Spiegel, Austrian-born film producer (d. 1985)
* 1904 - Alger Hiss, American government official and spy (d. 1994)
* 1904 - J. H. C. Whitehead, British mathematician (d. 1960)
* 1909 - Robert Ryan, American actor (d. 1973)
* 1912 - Thomas C. Mann, American diplomat (d. 1999)
* 1914 - Howard Fast, American author (d. 2003)
* 1914 - Henry Wade, American lawyer (d. 2001)
* 1915 - William Proxmire, U.S. Senator (d. 2005)
* 1918 - Stubby Kaye, American comic actor (d. 1997)
* 1919 - Martin Balsam, American actor (d. 1996)
* 1919 - Kalle Päätalo, Finnish novelist (d. 2000)
* 1920 - Roy Jenkins, British politician (d. 2003)
* 1921 - Terrell Bell, American politician
* 1922 - Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., American novelist
* 1925 - June Whitfield, British comedienne
* 1925 - Jonathan Winters, American comedian and actor
* 1928 - LaVern Baker, American singer (d. 1997)
* 1928 - Carlos Fuentes, Mexican writer
* 1929 - Hans Magnus Enzensberger, German writer
* 1937 - Stephen Lewis, Canadian politician and diplomat
* 1938 - Ants Antson, Estonian speed skater
* 1938 - Haruhiro Yamashita, Japanese gymnast
* 1939 - Denise Alexander, American actress
* 1940 - Barbara Boxer, U.S. Senator
* 1943 - Doug Frost, Australian swimming coach
* 1944 - Jesse Colin Young, American musician (The Youngbloods)
* 1945 - Daniel Ortega, President of Nicaragua
* 1950 - Mircea Dinescu, Romanian poet
* 1953 - Marshall Crenshaw, American musician
* 1959 - Lee Haney, American bodybuilder
* 1960 - Peter Parros, American actor
* 1960 - Stanley Tucci, American actor and film director
* 1961 - Corinne Hermès, French singer
* 1962 - Demi Moore, American actress
* 1962 - James Morrison, Australian musician
* 1964 - Judith Edelman, American musician
* 1964 - Calista Flockhart, American actress
* 1966 - Alison Doody, Irish actress
* 1967 - Gil de Ferran, Brazilian race car driver
* 1969 - Carson Kressley, American fashion expert and Tv-personality, see Queer Eye for the Straight Guy
* 1970 - Lee Battersby, Australian author
* 1973 - Jason White, American musician (Green Day)
* 1974 - Leonardo DiCaprio, American actor
* 1974 - Wajahatullah Wasti, Pakistani cricketer
* 1976 - Mike Leon Grosch, German singer and finalist of Deutschland sucht den Superstar 3
* 1977 - Ben Hollioake, English cricketer (d. 2002)
* 1979 - Courtenay Semel, American reality TV star; daughter of Terry Semel
* 1980 - Willie Parker, American football player
* 1981 - Natalie Glebova, Russian-Canadian beauty queen
* 1981 - Guillaume, Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg
* 1982 - Brittny Gastineau, American socialite and model
* 1985 - Kalan Porter, Canadian singer
* 1989 - Reina Tanaka, Japanese singer (Morning Musume, Aa!, Elegies)

Deaths

* 397 - Martin of Tours, French saint
* 405 - Arsacius, intruding archbishop of Constantinople
* 537 - Pope Silverius, saint
* 1028 - Constantine VIII of the Byzantine Empire (b. 960)
* 1623 - Philippe de Mornay, French writer (b. 1549)
* 1686 - Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, French general (b. 1621)
* 1686 - Otto von Guericke, German scientist, inventor, and politician (b. 1602)
* 1812 - Platon Levshin, Metropoitan of Moscow (b. 1737)
* 1831 - Nat Turner, American slave rebel (b. 1800)
* 1855 - Søren Kierkegaard, Danish philosopher (b. 1813)
* 1880 - Ned Kelly, Australian bushranger (hanged)
* 1880 - Lucretia Mott, American feminist and abolitionist (b. 1793)
* 1884 - Alfred Brehm German zoologist (b. 1827)
* 1887 - Haymarket martyrs:
* 1887 - George Engel (b. 1836)
* 1887 - Adolph Fischer (b. 1858)
* 1887 - Albert Parsons (b. 1848)
* 1887 - August Spies (b. 1855)
* 1917 - Liliuokalani of Hawaii, Queen of Hawaii (b. 1838)
* 1918 - George Lawrence Price, Canadian soldier, last person to be killed in W.W.I.
* 1931 - Shibusawa Eiichi, Japanese industrialist (b. 1840)
* 1939 - Jan Opletal, czech student, victim of nazi violence in Prague
* 1945 - Jerome David Kern, American composer (b. 1885)
* 1969 - Ernest Ansermet, Swiss conductor (b. 1883)
* 1972 - Berry Oakley, Bass Player and founder, Allman Brothers Band (b. 1948)
* 1973 - David "Stringbean" Akeman, American banjo player (b. 1915)
* 1973 - Artturi Ilmari Virtanen, Finnish chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1895)
* 1974 - Alfonso Leng, Chilean composer (b. 1894)
* 1975 - Theodosius Dobzhansky, Ukrainian geneticist (b. 1900)
* 1976 - Alexander Calder, American artist (b. 1898)
* 1977 - Greta Keller, Vienna-born cabaret singer and actress (b. 1903)
* 1979 - Dimitri Tiomkin, Ukrainian-born composer (b. 1894)
* 1988 - William Ifor Jones, Welsh Conductor & Organist (b. 1900)
* 1997 - Rodney Milburn, American athlete (b. 1950)
* 1999 - Mary Kay Bergman, American voice actress (b. 1961)
* 1999 - Jacobo Timmerman, Argentine writer and journalist (b. 1923)
* 2004 - Yasser Arafat, Palestinian leader, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1929)
* 2005 - Lord Lichfield, British photographer
* 2005 - Peter Drucker, American management theorist (b. 1909)


Holidays and observances

* R.C. Saints - Martin of Tours
* Opening of carnival season in Germany ("Karneval"/"Fasching" on 11-11, at 11:11), the Netherlands, and other countries
* Also see November 11 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
* Angola - Independence Day (1975)
* Colombia - Independence of Cartagena, from the Spanish Army in (1918)
* Poland - Independence Day (1918)
* South Korea - Pepero Day
* United States - Veterans Day (Formerly "Armistice Day")
* Armistice Day in France and Belgium: end of World War I (1918)
* Lacplesis' Day (1919) in Latvia: the official date for commemoration of Latvian soldiers, who had died for the country's freedom.
* Remembrance Day in the Commonwealth of Nations, including United Kingdom, Australia and Canada.
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